خاک شناسی-آلودگی خاک -آلودگی هوا- دستورکارخاکشناسی


+ تعیین نیترات ریدکتاز

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نویسنده : حسین امینی ; ساعت ۱:۳۸ ‎ب.ظ ; ۱۳٩٠/٧/۱٧
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+ تاثیر تیمارهای مختلف لجن فاضلاب بر خصوصیات شیمیایی خاک و جذب فلزات سنگین در گوجه

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نویسنده : حسین امینی ; ساعت ۱٢:۱۱ ‎ب.ظ ; ۱۳٩٠/٦/۱٩
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+ How To Interpret a Soil Test Report

How To Interpret a Soil Test Report

Soil testing is an important tool for evaluating or avoiding problems of nutrients balance.

Soils are the source of thirteen of the sixteen essential plant nutrients and can be viewed as suppliers of nutrients to plants.  Plants absorb available nutrients, which can be replenished by adding fertilizers.

 

To achieve good yield and quality, nutrient balance has to be maintained. Nutrient imbalance may result in deficiencies, toxicities or interference of one nutrient with the absorption of others.

 

This may result in stress to the crop, causing a decrease in quality and/or yield.   

 

Why Is Soil Testing ImportantGrowers can roughly estimate how much fertilizers should be applied to their crop according to general fertilizer recommendations. But a more accurate, cost-effective fertilizer application requires soil testing.

 

Soil test allows you to know the starting point, and this is a very valuable piece of information.

  

Here are the basics of how to interpret soil test reports.
 

Sample soil test report

Sample soil test report (click image to enlarge)


Taking Soil Test Samples

Taking a soil sample correctly is the number one step for getting a reliable soil test result.

 

Soil sampling should be well planned and preformed. For example, the sample site should be far from roads, fences, tree groups, piles of fertilizers and manure or any other object that can locally affect the soil properties and content. 

 

The soil sample should represent the entire field as closely as possible. If the field is not uniform, and consists of different areas with different properties, each area should be sampled. Compiling results from completely different areas and averaging them into one report, will obviously give us a very misleading result. 

 

Other Factors Affecting Soil-Test Results 

There are many factors that affect the plant growth. A Soil test does not give answers to poor or inadequate conditions, such as critically low or high temperatures, inadequate drainage,  plant diseases, pests damage, competition with weeds etc.

  

Once you took the soil sample correctly and you acknowledge the many factors that may affect your crop, you can proceed to interpret the numbers in the soil test report.

 

Interpreting The Numbers On The Soil Test Report 

Soils usually contain much higher amounts of nutrients than what you see in the soil test report, because lab results describe only the available nutrients to plant. To estimate the amounts of nutrients which are actually available to plants, different testing methods were developed. Many of these methods give empirical values or measures. 

 

Soil test reports might be confusing: different labs use different testing methods, resulting in different results for the same sample!

For example, phosphorus is often measured using "Olsen" testing procedure or "Bray" testing procedure.

The testing method used by the lab is often mentioned in the lab test report. It is essential to know which method was used by the lab for each element tested, in order to interpret the results.

Labs may even use the same methods, but express the results in different units, or give a different interpretation to the same result.

  

To correlate the numbers in the soil test report with crop response to added nutrients, numerous field experiments are required. The reason is that the same

numbers may lead to different recommendations in different soils, different areas and under different field conditions.

The numbers in the soil test report, together with the description of the nutrient content in the soil, can indicate if the predicted crop response to fertilizers will be favorable or not.  
 

Giving Fertilizer recommendations  

Good labs, having good experience, use their regional database to give a description of the level of each nutrient (indicating if its level is too high, too low or adequate) and even fertilizer recommendations. Read here about the different approaches for giving fertilizer recommendations.

 

Do not take these recommendation as "instructions". Remember that no one knows your crop better than you do.   

 

The soil test report, together with the grower's close familiarity with his crop and field conditions, give the grower the starting-point for deciding on a fertilizer program. 

 

First thing to remember is that different crops remove from the soil different amounts of nutrients. So knowing your crop needs is essential.

Next is your crop target yield - generally speaking, higher fertilization level gives higher yields, but only up to a certain point. Beyond that, addition of fertilizers will not increase yields and may even reduce them as a result of salts accumulation in the root zone.

Yield response curve

 

Soil test reports give a good starting point for making better fertilizer management decisions. They should be put in context and their interpretation should be adjusted to the individual crop behavior and specific field conditions. 

Click here for a soil test interpretation guide

 

SMART software interprets soil test results and gives nutriet and fertilizer recommendations based on these results and other paramenters. Click here to learn more about SMART Fertilizer Management Software.

 

 Read our expert articles on various topics

نویسنده : حسین امینی ; ساعت ۱:٤۱ ‎ب.ظ ; ۱۳٩٠/٤/٢٩
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+ بیومانیتورینگ ذرات معلق در هوا بوسیله تعیین خاصیت مغناطیسی برگ درختان نارون(Ulmu

محمد مهدی صادقیان ،فروغ مرتضائی نژاد، احمد رضا گلپرور،حسین امینی

 

امروزه وجود غبار ودیگر آلاینده های هوا به  یکی از معضلات فضای سبزتبدیل گردیده وباعث  مسمومیت درختان ودرختچه ها و پلاسیدگی برگ آنها شده ورنگ باختگی پوشش گیاهی در بسیاری از مناطق مختلف کلان شهرها قابل مشاهده است. .بسیاری از درختان واقع در حاشیه بزرگراه ها به دلیل تجمع لایه ای از ذرات زیانبار بر روی سطح برگها در حالت مسمومیت شدید قرار دارند . بیو مانیتورینگ این ذرات میتواند ما را در تعیین کمیت وکیفیت پوشش گیاهی در نقاط مختلف سطح شهر و در مجموع برای ایجاد یک فضای سبز پایدار شهری رهنمون گردد روش پژوهش بصورت میدانی بوده وابزار گردآوری داده ها توسط دستگاه مگنتو مترمیباشد. شش ایستگاه پرترافیک در مناطق مختلف فضای سبز شهر اصفهان شامل فضای سبز حاشیه خیابانها و پارکها ومیادین مشخص شد وبرگ درختان نارون از ارتفاع 2 متری جمع آوری گردید. تعداد 10 برگ از هر درخت جدا کرده و.برای هر ایستگاه  10 تکرار انجام شد. برگها را جهت سنجش میدان مغناطیسی در جعبه مخصوص قرار داده و سپس توسط یک دستگاه مگنتومتر میزان میدان مغناطیسی را اندازه گیری نمودیم.  علت انتخاب درختان نارون در این تحقیق ،وفور این درخت در فضای سبز شهر اصفهان میباشد.مقایسه خاصیت مغناطیسی برگ درختان نارون قبل و بعد از شستشو  در فضای سبز پارکها ، حاشیه خیابان ها و میادین انجام شدو بیشترین میزان خاصیت مغناطیسی دربرگ درختان نارون حوالی میدان لاله ومیدان بزرگمهر مشاهده گردید.

نویسنده : حسین امینی ; ساعت ۳:٤۱ ‎ب.ظ ; ۱۳٩٠/۱/۱٧
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+ بررسی و معرفی گونه های درختی مقاوم به آلاینده های هوا در فضای سبز شهر اصفهان

محمد مهدی صادقیان ،فروغ مرتضایی نژاد، حسین امینی، مریم بهداد، بهروز ستایش

 

انتخاب گونه های درختی مقاوم به آلاینده های هوا میتواند تاثیر بسزایی در بالا بردن کیفیت هوا در شهر ها داشته باشد. آلاینده های هوا به دو صورت میتوانند به درختان صدمه بزنند. یکی به صورت جذب آلاینده های شیمیایی از طریق  روزنه ها و دیگری از طریق جذب گرد و غبار و ذرات معلق هوا روی سطح برگ میتواند به گیاهان آسیب وارد نماید. روش پژوهش از نوع میدانی بوده و ابزار گردآوری داده ها در این مطالعه استفاده از دستگاه حساس به آلاینده ها ی هوا برای اندازه گیری میزان آلاینده های  ازن ،دی اکسید گوگرد وذرات معلق و نیز استفاده از دستگاه  اسپکترو فتومترجهت  آنالیز عصاره برگ درختان و تعیین میزان  آنتی اکسیدان برگ میباشد. در مکانهایی که میزان گازهای  ازن، دی اکسید گوگرد  و ذرات معلق در هوا  در حد بسیار بالایی بود مقاومت گونه های درختی مورد مطالعه و بررسی قرار گرفت..  بالاتر بودن میزان آنتی اکسیدانها نشانه مقاومت بیشتر گونه های درختی میباشد.در این روش از برگ درختان و درختچه ها شامل عرعر (آیلان)،سرو نقره ای،زبان گنجشک،برگ نو وتوت عصاره گیری شد ومیزان شاخص مقاومت به آلاینده های هوا( APTI)  را از طریق اندازه گیری میزان اسکوربیک اسید ،میزان کلروفیل کل ، اسیدیته عصاره برگ و درصد نسبی آب محاسبه نمودیم .نتایج بدست آمده نشان دهنده مقاومت بالای درختان آیلان و توت نسبت به آلاینده های هوا میباشد.
 
     

نویسنده : حسین امینی ; ساعت ۳:۳٧ ‎ب.ظ ; ۱۳٩٠/۱/۱٧
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+ Assessment of copper, cobalt and zinc contaminations in soils and plants of indu

M. Hoodaji, A. Tahmourespour and H. Amini

 

 

Abstract

The infiltration of heavy metals into soils through steel plant production processes is one of the most important soil pollution sources. The aim of this study was to determine copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), and zinc (Zn) concentrations in soil and plant shoots around the Esfahan steel company (ESC). In this study, we separated 17 zones based on soil maps and marked 54 points for soil sampling. Samples were collected from each point at 0–5, 5–10, 10–20 and 20–40 cm depths and DTPA-extractable concentrations of Cu, Co, and Zn were determined. Also 162 plant samples from shoots of 13 main plant species were collected and the concentrations of Cu, Co, and Zn were determined. The results showed that the maximum concentrations of Cu, Co, and Zn were 9.2, 2.4, and 10 mg kg−1 soil at the depth of 0–5 cm. A comparison of the heavy metal contents at different levels showed Cu, Co, and Zn contamination in soil profile, especially in topsoil (0–20 cm) that was mainly caused by anthropogenic activities. Also significant correlations existed between Cu, Co, and Zn concentrations. The maximum concentrations of Cu in shoots of Triticum vulgare, Medicago sativa, Amygdalus scoparia and Oryza sativa were 21.8, 21.2, 21, and 20.3 mg kg−1dry matter that were higher than the standard levels of Cu in plant dry matter. The maximum concentrations of Co in shoots of Medicago sativa, Vitis vinifera, Euphorbia spp., and Tamarix spp. were 12.7, 11.3, 10.3, and 10.2 mg kg−1 dry matter that were extremely higher than the standard levels of Co in plant dry matter, but the maximum concentration of Zn in shoot of Medicago sativa was 51.7 mg kg−1 dry matter that was near the normal range of this element in plants. Therefore, high concentrations of Cu and Co in these plants were caused by human activities and arise from soil and atmospheric pollution.

Keywords  Copper - Cobalt - Zinc - Steel plant and soil pollution

نویسنده : حسین امینی ; ساعت ۳:۳۱ ‎ب.ظ ; ۱۳٩٠/۱/۱٧
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+ Copper and cobalt concentrations in soil and plants in an industrial region

 

Hoodaji, M.; Tahmourespour, A.; Amini, H

 

The input of heavy metals in soils through steel plant's production processes is one of the most important soil pollution sources. The aim of this study was to determining Cu and Co concentrations in soil and plants shoots around the Esfahan Steel Company. In this study, we separated 17 zones based on soil maps and marked 54 points for soil sampling. In each point were sampled at 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm depths and DTPA-extractable concentrations of Cu and Co were determined. Also 162 plant samples from shoots of 13 main plants species were collected and the concentrations of Cu and Co were determined. The results showed that, the maximum concentrations of Cu were 9.2, 7.4, 5.9 and 7.5 mg/kg.soil respectively in 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm layers. The maximum concentrations of Co were 2.4, 2, 1.8 and 2.3 mg/kg.soil respectively in 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm layers. Therefore the concentrations of Cu and Co in soil were less than the maximum permitted concentrations (MPC) of these elements in agricultural soils. The maximum concentrations of Cu in shoots of Triticum vulgare, Medicago sativa, Amygdalus scoparia and Oryza sativa were 21.8, 21.2, 21 and 20.3 mg/kg.dry. matter that were higher than the standard levels of Cu in plant dry matter. The maximum concentrations of Co in shoots of Medicago sativa, Vitis vinifera, Euphorbia spp. and Tamarix spp. were 12.7, 11.3, 10.3 and 10.2 mg/kg.dry. matter that were extremely higher than the standard levels of Co in plant dry matter. Therefore high concentrations of Cu and Co in the studied plants may arise from atmospheric pollution.

نویسنده : حسین امینی ; ساعت ۳:۳٠ ‎ب.ظ ; ۱۳٩٠/۱/۱٧
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+ Assessment of copper, cobalt and zinc contaminations in soils and plants of indu

Abstract

The infiltration of heavy metals into soils through steel plant production processes is one of the most important soil pollution sources. The aim of this study was to determine copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), and zinc (Zn) concentrations in soil and plant shoots around the Esfahan steel company (ESC). In this study, we separated 17 zones based on soil maps and marked 54 points for soil sampling. Samples were collected from each point at 0–5, 5–10, 10–20 and 20–40 cm depths and DTPA-extractable concentrations of Cu, Co, and Zn were determined. Also 162 plant samples from shoots of 13 main plant species were collected and the concentrations of Cu, Co, and Zn were determined. The results showed that the maximum concentrations of Cu, Co, and Zn were 9.2, 2.4, and 10 mg kg−1 soil at the depth of 0–5 cm. A comparison of the heavy metal contents at different levels showed Cu, Co, and Zn contamination in soil profile, especially in topsoil (0–20 cm) that was mainly caused by anthropogenic activities. Also significant correlations existed between Cu, Co, and Zn concentrations. The maximum concentrations of Cu in shoots of Triticum vulgare, Medicago sativa, Amygdalus scoparia and Oryza sativa were 21.8, 21.2, 21, and 20.3 mg kg−1dry matter that were higher than the standard levels of Cu in plant dry matter. The maximum concentrations of Co in shoots of Medicago sativa, Vitis vinifera, Euphorbia spp., and Tamarix spp. were 12.7, 11.3, 10.3, and 10.2 mg kg−1 dry matter that were extremely higher than the standard levels of Co in plant dry matter, but the maximum concentration of Zn in shoot of Medicago sativa was 51.7 mg kg−1 dry matter that was near the normal range of this element in plants. Therefore, high concentrations of Cu and Co in these plants were caused by human activities and arise from soil and atmospheric pollution.

Keywords  Copper - Cobalt - Zinc - Steel plant and soil pollution

نویسنده : حسین امینی ; ساعت ۳:٢٤ ‎ب.ظ ; ۱۳٩٠/۱/۱٧
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